• Italy to Help in Textile Industry Development in Ethiopia

    Italy-Textile-EthiopiaSeptember 24, 2017 - The Ethiopian Textile Industry Development Institute and the Italian Trade Agency signed a cooperation agreement for the enhancement of textile industry development in Ethiopia. Small, medium and large scale Ethiopian enterprises operating in the textile industry will be the key beneficiaries of the assistance through the 'Italy-Ethiopia textile technology center' project.

    The agreement includes 200,000 Euros assistance for technology and equipment dedicated to local training.
    General Director of Ethiopian Textile Industry Development Institute Seleshi Lemma said the assistance will help to improve its capability through training and technology.
    Speaking on the occasion, Italian ambassador to Ethiopia Giuseppe Mistretta said the Ethiopian government has given hi

  • Chinese Embassy in Ethiopia Warns Chinese Companies on Labor Abuses

    Chinese-companies-warnedSeptember 23, 2017 - The Chinese embassy in Addis Ababa called an unprecedented meeting with all Chinese companies operating in Ethiopia last week, following repeated events such as labor issues and accusations involving Chinese companies working in the country. The Chinese embassy in Ethiopia confirmed such a communication had taken place but refused to go into details.

    However, according to sources, the embassy went further and warned some of the companies regarding the consequences of their actions in the country.

    Sources also confirmed that recent incidents involving the China State Construction Engineering Corporation (CSCEC) that had seven of its employee’s burn to death and dozens severely injured within what is to become the biggest stadium in the country - Adey Ababa Stadium was one of highlights of

  • Ethiopia’s First Natural Gas Development Project Behind Schedule

    Ethiopian-Natural-GasSeptember 23, 2017 - Due to complex negotiations with the Djiboutian government on gas pipeline construction to the port of Djibouti, Ethiopia’s first natural gas development project in the Ogaden basin in Somali Regional State is lagging behind schedule, reports the Ethiopian newspaper The Reporter.

    The Chinese firm Poly-GCL signed petroleum development agreement with the then Ethiopian  Ministry of Mines in November 2013 that would enable the company develop the natural gas reserves in the Ogaden basin and prospect for additional oil and gas deposits. Poly-GCL has been undertaking various petroleum exploration and reserve estimation work in the Calub, Hilala and Genale localities where there is a vast gas reserve. The company has been drilling appraisal gas wells and oil and gas exploration wells in the Ogaden basin, whic

  • AMISOM Troop Contributing Countries Urge International Community for Support

    AMISOMSeptember 22, 2017 - Leaders of Djibouti, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Burundi urged the international community for support during troop contributing countries meeting, which was called by President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda. Leaders of AMISOM troop contributing countries noted that financial constraint is becoming a hindrance to the smooth operation of the peacekeeping mission and called upon the international community to support AMISOM so that it would carry out its mission effectively.

    Enabling the gradual handover of its security responsibility to Somali security forces; reducing the threat posed by Al-Shabaab and other armed opposition groups, are among the strategic objectives of AMISOM.

    It is also its responsibility to assist Somali security forces in providing security for Somalia’s political process and peace building efforts.

    It i

  • Donald Trump to Send Nikki Haley to South Sudan and DRC

    Nikki-Haley-Visiting-AfricaSeptember 21, 2017 - U.S. President Donald Trump announced that he will send his U.N. envoy Nikki Haley to South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo, reports VOA. The president said Haley would "discuss avenues of conflict resolution and, most importantly, prevention."

    "We're closely monitoring and deeply disturbed by the ongoing violence in South Sudan and in the Congo," Trump said in a lunch meeting Wednesday with African leaders on the sidelines of the U.N. General Assembly.

    "Millions of lives are at risk and we continue to provide humanitarian assistance, but real results in halting this catastrophe will require an African-led peace process, and a sincere — really sincere — commitment of all parties involved."

    South Sudan is mired in the fourth year of a civil war tha

  • USAID Launches New HIV Care Project in Ethiopia

    USAID-Ethiopia-HIV-ProjectSeptember 21, 2017 - The United State Agency for International Development /USAID/ launched a new five-year community HIV care and treatment project in Ethiopia, reports Ethiopian news agency. The 40 million USD project has an objective of supporting the government of Ethiopia to achieve the 90-90-90 global target through community based HIV care and treatment approach.
    The 90-90-90 is an ambition treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic.
    It aspires that by 2020, 90 percent of people living with HIV will know their HIV status; 90 percent of people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy; and 90 percent of the people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression.
    USAID mission director Leslie Reed said on the launching event USAID has e

  • Rebels Kill 25 in South Sudan Attack

    25-killed-south-sudanSeptember 20, 2017 - Rebels in South Sudan attacked government forces in Unity State, where oil fields have been abandoned due to fighting, and 25 people including civilians were killed, reports Africa news.

    South Sudan, which gained independence from Sudan in 2011 after protracted bloodshed, fell into civil war in late 2013 with troops loyal to President Salva Kiir fighting those of the ex-vice president he sacked, Riek Machar.

    Those killed during Monday’s fighting in the town of NhialDiu included women, elderly people and local police officers, Lam Tungwar, state minister of information of Northern Liech state, told Reuters.

    A rebel spokesman, Lam Paul Gabriel, put the death toll at 18 while the government said it had managed to repulse the rebels and were pursuing them.

    Dickson Gatluak Jock, military

  • US 'Disturbed' by Ethnic Conflict in Ethiopia - Report

    US-Embassy-Addis-AbabaSeptember 19, 2017 - The U.S. Embassy in Addis Ababa struck an urgent and concerned tone on Tuesday when it issued a statement saying it was “disturbed by the troubling reports” on “ethnic violence and the large-scale displacement of people” along the border between the country’s two largest regions, Oromia and Somali, according to Newsweek report.

    “We urge the Ethiopian government to conduct a transparent investigation into all allegations of violence and to hold those responsible accountable,” said the embassy’s statement according to the report.

    “At the same time, on the local level, communities must be encouraged and given space to seek peaceful resolutions to the underlying conflicts.”

    Ethiopia has a federal government with oversight over regional a

  • Ethiopia, Sudan to Bolster Military Ties

    Sudan-Army-ChiefSeptember 19, 2017 - Ethiopian and Sudanese military officials are deliberating on how to enhance joint cooperation to face security challenges in the region, the Sudanese army chief of staff, General Emad al-Din Mustafa Adawi, says, according to Sudan Tribune. Several years after the unsuccessful attempt to reconcile Ethiopia and Eritrea in order to build a tripartite economic and military regional alliance, Sudan and Ethiopia developed joint economic projects and moved together towards broader regional political and security cooperation.

    During a visit to Khartoum last August, Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessaleg called for a regional integration while Sudanese President Omer al-Bashir professed that all the conditions are set to establish the "Horn of Africa Economic Organization".

    "The visit of the Chi

  • Talk of ‘African Renaissance, Fastest Growing Economies’ Misplaced - Eritrean Official

    Eritrean-FM-UNSeptember 24, 2017 - Africa remains the most marginalized of all continents, and therefore talk of an ‘African Renaissance’ and of ‘fastest growing economies’ is misplaced and premature, Eritrea’s top foreign affairs official told the United Nations General Assembly. Eritrean minister for Foreign Affairs Osman Saleh Mohammed also noted that processing of primary products, value-addition, industrialization, technology development barely exists. African economies, physical and social infrastructure, institutional and governance structures, peace and security architectures remain undeveloped.

    “We should not flatter ourselves, or allow others to flatter us,” said Osman at the Assembly’s annual high-level debate.

    “Africa remains a producer and small-bit exporter of primary prod

  • Ethiopian Jew Danielle Daseta to Represent Israel at UN

    Danielle-Daseta-Ethiopian-Jew-UNSeptember 24, 2017 - Ethiopian Jew, Danielle Daseta, is going to represent Israel in the UN, reports Ynet news. Danielle started her career in diplomacy while she was studying for a bachelor's degree in governance and diplomacy, participating in the "Israel@heart" leadership program for Ethiopian Jews.
    After joining the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Danielle spent a long time working on hasbara (public relations). She participated in hasbara-centric delegations to American and Canadian campuses and was the Jewish Agency's emissary to the University of San Diego, where she combated the boycott movement.
    Upon her return, she managed Israeli students' hasbara delegations and kept in contact with African ambassadors to strengthen the Is

  • Egypt Concerned over Slow Pace of Technical Studies on GERD

    Egypt-concered-GERDSeptember 23, 2017 - Egypt expressed concern over what it says is the slow pace of work on technical studies in relation to Ethiopia’s flagship dam, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) project. Egyptian officals raised the concern  during a meeting with Ethiopian foriegn minster Dr. Workneh Gebeyehu in New York on the sideline of the 72nd session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).

    There is an ongoing dispute over the GERD project especially its impact on water distribution of the River Nile. The issue affects both countries as well as Sudan. Shoukry said all parties needed to meet to share results from the technical studies and to firm up commitments in that regard.

    Leaders of the three countries in 2015 signed a cooperation deal over the giant hydroelectric dam which will lie on

  • Bishoftu Town Finalizes Preparations for Irrecha Celebration

    Irreacha-BishoftuSeptember 22, 2017 - Despite concerns over this year’s Irrecha celebration, Oromo's thanks-giving festival, the deputy mayor of Bishoftu town, where the celebration takes place, stated that preparations have been finalized to colorfully celebrate the festival. Last year more than 52 participants of the ceremony were killed in a stampede, which latter caused massive protest against the government. On its part, the government stated that the stampede was caused by anit-peace forces, several outlawed opposition groups of Ethiopia.                                    

    The deputy Mayor of the town, Dr. Alemu Gonfa, quoted by the Ethiopian News agency as s

  • Ethiopia Committed to Strengthen Relations with Egypt - FM

    Ethiopian-Egypt-cooperationSeptember 22, 2017 - Ethiopian Minister of Foreign Affairs Workneh Gebeyehu, on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), expressed the need to strengthen the long-standing ties between Ethiopia and Egypt. In his meeting with his Egyptian counterpart Sameh Shoukry in New York on Friday, Gebeyehu called for strengthening ties between the two African countries, according to a statement issued by the Ethiopian Minister of Foreign Affairs on Friday.

    According to the statement, the two foreign ministers discussed bilateral and regional issues of mutual interest and the areas of discussion revolved around strengthening cooperation and partnership to cement the ties between the two countries.

    Gebeyehu also invited Egyptian companies to invest in Ethiopia, it was indicated.

    The two foreign ministers a

  • Ethiopian Political Parties Begin Talks on Reforming Electoral Law

    Ethiopian-PartiesSeptember 21, 2017 - 16 national political parties of Ethiopia have begun discussion on ways to reform the electoral law., according to FBC
    In the discussions, 12 political parties have expressed their demand for the implementation of proportional representation electoral system.

    Shiferaw Shigute and Asmelash Woldeselassie, representatives of the ruling party EPRDF, for their part tabled the amended electoral law of Ethiopia, which follows the majority system.

    The system, which Ethiopia follows, is common all over the worldwide and it was proved successful, Asmelash said at the event.

    Ethiopia’s past five elections were conducted in this system and helped build democracy in the country, he added.

    However, in order to expand the democratic system, it is important to put in place a mechanism wh

  • Exiting Indian Flower Grower Demands Compensation from Ethiopia

    Karuturi-EthiopiaSeptember 21, 2017 - The giant Indian flower grower company, Karuturi Global Ltd., demanded compensation from the Ethiopian government for a series of failed land deals as it prepares to exit from Ethiopia. Karuturi wrote a letter to the Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn accusing the Ethiopian government of nationalizing its farming investments and said it should be given “adequate and appropriate” redress.

    “We stand tired and defeated and wish to exit Ethiopia,” Karuturi said in the letter, citing a government decision to “unilaterally and illegally cancel our investment and trade license.” The company also asked Hailemariam to allow the company to re-export all its equipment.

    Karuturi, based in Bengaluru, India, was one of the first foreign investors to lease land in Ethiopia after the go

  • Ethiopia Launches Tax Research Network

    Ethiopian-Tax-Research-NetworkSeptember 20, 2017 - The Ethiopian Tax Research Network (ETRN) was officially launched today by the International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD) with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, reports FBC. The Network comprises the Ethiopian Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation, Ethiopian Revenues and Customs Authority, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Ethiopian Development Research Institute and UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) as members.

    The Network is aimed at supporting the exchange of tax knowledge in Ethiopia, with stakeholders including tax practitioners and researchers from Ethiopian and international organizations.

    Mezgebu Ahma, Fiscal Policy Directorate Director at the Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation of Ethiopia said the network would h

  • Ethiopia Makes Largest-Ever Micro-Insurance Indemnity to Pastoralists

    Ethiopia-pastoralist-payoutSeptember 19, 2017 - Ethiopia has made its largest-ever micro-insurance indemnity for the loss of approximately 300,000 livestock lost due to the recurrent drought, reports the cattle site. The insurance payouts of more than Ethiopian Birr 5.233 million (US$220,000) was the largest-ever micro-insurance indemnity made in Ethiopia. Each insured Ethiopian pastoralist received an average of ETB 2,255 (US$96), which will allow the herders to purchase feeds for their surviving animals and to restock their herds.

    Pastoralists in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia have been insured by an index-based livestock insurance (IBLI) scheme devised in 2008 by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and its technical partners at Cornell University and the University of California at Davis. The Ethiopian component of this project w

  • 55,000 Ethnic Oromos Displaced – Oromia Regional Government

    Oromos-DisplacedSeptember 18, 2017 - More than 55,000 ethnic Oromos have been displaced from Ethiopia's Somali region after a week of clashes with Somalis in which dozens were killed, Voice of America reports.  The Oromia government follows claims by Somali regional officials earlier this week that more than 50 people were killed in an attack against ethnic Somalis in Aweday town.

    "More than 55,000 Oromos were displaced from the Somali region after the recent incident and are now sheltered in makeshift camps,'' Addisu Arega, Oromia region's spokesman, said in the statement. "Overall, some 416,807 Oromos have been displaced this year alone in fear of attacks by the Somali region's Special Police Force.''

    Oromia officials say only 18 people were killed and that Oromos have been moving out of Somali towns and villag

  • Ethiopia: Hundreds Apprehended in Connection with Oromia, Somali Border Conflict

    Ethiopia-border-conflict-arrestsSeptember 17, 2017 - Hundreds of people who are allegedly responsible for the death and displacement of people in the conflict between Oromia and Somali regional states have been apprehended, said Minister of Ethiopian Government Communication Affairs Office, Dr. Negeri Lencho. He also stated that the suspects have been detained in connection with the conflict as part of the effort to restore peace and bring the responsible persons to justice.
    "People who took part in the conflict are apprehended. Maybe hundreds of people are already detained. In Oromia regional state, particularly in Aweday, nearly 200 persons are detained", added the Ethiopian official. 
    The Minister said the Defense Force and Federal Police were deployed to the area to control the situation an

  • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Commits Half Billion Dollars for Ethiopia

    Gates-Foundation-EthiopiaSeptember 17, 2017 - Taking into consideration the challenges of implementing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and highlighting the prospects of the upcoming SDGs, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) revealed the commitment of USD half billion for development projects in Ethiopia. The foundation also warned the Ethiopian government that budget cuts could regress development gains.

    The foundation has committed USD 500 million to assist the Ethiopia’s efforts in areas of health, nutrition, education, agriculture, livestock, financial inclusion and the like. According to BMGF’s officials, Ethiopia is one of the few countries that have achieved the targets set for MDGs has shown progresses in many of its developmental activities. Hence, to support the strides, the foundation set aside millions of dollars for the coming t

  • Ethiopian Airlines Announces Plan for Southern Africa Market

    Ethiopian-Aims-South-AfricaSeptember 16, 2017 - An outline plan for a joint-venture airline in Zambia should be signed with the government and private-equity investors in a few weeks, leading to a final agreement by November, Chief Executive Officer Tewolde GebreMariam said in an interview. That will give Ethiopian a new hub in Lusaka serving southern Africa alongside Malawian Airlines, in which it has a stake.

    Ethiopian Airlines Enterprise has started talks to found regional divisions in Zambia and Chad and aims to buy part of the Democratic Republic of Congo’s national operator in a push to consolidate its lead as Africa’s biggest carrier, according to the Ethiopian CEO.

    Parallel discussions are underway in Chad for the establishment of a new national carrier there, Tewolde said. Ethiopian also wants to take equity in st

  • Ethiopia, Kenya Forecasted to Outperform African Giants in FDI

    Ethiopia-Kenya-FDISeptember 15, 2017 - Ethiopia and Kenya might soon outshine Africa's economic giants, Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt in the competition for investment, according to forecasts from Control Risks Consultancy. The report Africa Risk-Reward Index, developed by Control Risks, was released in Johannesburg.

    The report noted that while Nigeria and South Africa have recovered, there are still some risks.

    Ethiopia, which is one of the fastest growing countries in the continent, outperformed all African countries in the survey.

    The country attracted 3.2 billion U.S. dollars of foreign direct investment in 2016.  Between 2010 and 2015, economic growth averaged 10 percent and was 6.5 percent last year.

    "Experienced investors, not only in Africa but around the world, know that risk and reward are close c

  • Ethiopia Hosting 852,721 Refugees - UNHCR

    Ethiopia-UNHCRSeptember 15, 2017 - The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) Ethiopia announced that Ethiopia received 72,890 refugees in the first eight months of 2017. According to  Kisut Gebreegziabher, Assistant Communications Officer at UNHCR Ethiopia, the largest group of refugees come from South Sudan at 44,000 followed by Eritreans at 17,000 and Somalis at over 6,400.

    The 72,890 refugees recorded in Ethiopia in the first eight months of 2017 have pushed the number of refugees living in Ethiopia to reach 852,721 as of August 21, making the country home to the second largest refugee population in Africa, according to UNHCR.

    "Refugees from South Sudan fled to Ethiopia to escape civil war, Eritrean refugees mentioned indefinite military conscription and human rights violations for their flight while Somalis mentioned a combination of conf

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    Income-Inequality-USAAugust 9, 2017 - Income inequality has been growing rapdily in much of the world in recent years, but nowhere as profound as in the United States. In the US, beginning in the 1980s, whereas income growth for most Americans has been going down, income growth for the top few has been skyrocketing in an unprecented way.

    A well-known team of inequality researchers — Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman — has been getting some attention recently for a chart it produced. It shows the change in income between 1980 and 2014 for every point on the income distribution, and it neatly summarizes the recent soaring of inequality.

    The red line on the chart resembles a classic hockey-stick graph. It’s mostly flat and close to zero, before spiking upward at the end. That spike shows that the very affluent, and only the very affluent, have received significant raise

  • Ababa Tesfaye: Hero of Ethiopian Children and The Nation

    Ethiopian-Hero-Tesfaye-Sahlu-Passed-AwayBy Seble Teweldebirhan

    August 9, 2017 - I met Tesfaye Sahlu, aka Ababa Tesfaye (Father Tesfaye), about seven years ago in one of the cafes around 22 Mazoria in Addis Ababa. I and a friend of mine were stunned to see our childhood hero and one of the most respected TV personalities when we were kids, in a café trying to sell one of his books. Ababa Tesfaye at the time carried several copies of his children’s story books and was going from table to table, just showing the front cover of his books. He wasn’t speaking much nor asking people to buy his books. He was just going around the tables showing the cover. If people didn’t show interest, he will just move on to the next table quietly. If they buy, which many did, he accepted the money and politely said thank you. We sat in disbelief, watching his movements in the café and waiting until he reach

  • Ethiopia Named Fastest-Growing Economy in the World in 2017

    Ethiopia-fastest-growing-economyJuly 13, 2017 - The World Bank named Ethiopia as the fastest-growing economy of the world in 2017. In its 2017 edition of the Global Economic Prospects, the World Bank stated that Ethiopia offers security, low-tariff access to markets in nearby rich countries, and cheap labor, which helped the country to lure big international investors.

    Although unstable currencies and falling revenue from commodities continue to be a challenge to African countries, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that Ethiopia’s economy grew 8.7% last year and its GDP is forecast to grow by 8.3% in 2017.

    The East African country’s accelerating growth is due to the dominance of the state as well as its ability to retain its value despite the global downturn.

    On the global ladder, Uzbekistan has the second-fastest-growing economy, with projected growth

  • Ethiopia May Have Grown but Kenyans are Better Off - Commentary

    Kenya-vs-EthiopiaJune 24, 2017 - As the world woke up to news that Ethiopia had overtaken Kenya to become Eastern Africa’s largest economy, a number of conflicting developments were also taking place in Addis Ababa. An article carried by the Weekend Business on June 11, 2017 showed that Ethiopia’s economy had outpaced Kenya’s to become the largest economy in Eastern Africa.

    This was happening at a time when Ethiopia was finding it difficult to adequately feed its population. The United Nations has noted that about 7.8 million Ethiopians who had been receiving food aid are in danger of sliding into hunger with relief food expected to run out next month. It was an embarrassing indictment of a country that had just achieved seminal economic success. Even as millions went without food, Ethiopia, which was the first to launch an electric cross-border railway line in Africa, con

  • The Politics of Internet Shutdown in Ethiopia

    By Seble Teweldebirhan

    Internet-Shutdown-EthiopiaJune 15, 2017 ( - After almost ten days of internet blackout, Communications Affair’s Minister Negere Lencho, told reporters that the shutdown of service was to protect the moral of high school students who were taking national exams. ‘We just did not want them to be disturbed by all the negativity and false information online. We wanted them to focus,’ he told reporters. Negeri did not agree with the assertion that the government shutdown of the internet was because of the fear that the national exams will be stolen and distributed online, as it happened last year. Instead, he argued that this is something the government will never have to worry about again.

    However, he refrained from answering many critical questions, including who takes responsibility for the financial losses suffered by many organizations and, more importa

  • Ethiopian Emperor in Exile: The Untold Story

    Haileselassie-in-ExileBy Seble Teweldebirhan

    May 20, 2017 ( - On May 5, 1941, Ethiopian Emperor Hailesellasie made a grand entry to the capital, Addis Ababa, pleased that after five years in exile, he was finally back to his country and the people who worshipped him. The day is now celebrated every year as the Patriot’s Victory Day. His return symbolizes the failure of Italy’s attempt to colonize Ethiopia. However, there has been a lot of controversy over the years on the emperor’s decision to exile when things got tough. There have also been different stories on how the king and his family coped up with life as refugee in England. The new book titled Imperial Exile, by British author Keith Bowers, investigates in some depth into the life of Hailesellasie and his family in Bath, England.

    When the emperor decided to leave Ethiopia on May 2, 1936, while the Italians were p

  • Teddy Afro, the Ethiopian Music Phenomenon

    Teddy-Afro-EthiopiaBy Seble Teweldebirhan

    May 9, 2017 ( - It seems puzzling to see people in a cold, rainy morning in Addis Ababa waiting in line to buy a CD album and admit that they don’t even own a CD player. However, many couldn’t pass the opportunity to buy Teddy Afro’s new music album titled Ethiopia. “It has a sentimental value to me’’ said Teshale Moges, a bank teller, as he stood in line smiling and admitting that he doesn’t own a CD players since he considers them outdated. But he proudly said he would keep the new Tewodros Kassahun (AKA Teddy Afro) 5th studio album in his house. The CD was the hottest commodity in the capital Addis Ababa on Wednesday last week, and was sold twice its price in many places. Taxi drivers, book sellers, shoe shining boys, all became salesmen for a day, running around the city convincing people to buy the original C

  • Ethiopia: Home to Second Highest Number of Orthodox Christians in the World

    Orthodox-ChristiansApril 16, 2017 - Orthodox Christianity is one of three distinct branches of the Christian religion (the other two being the Catholic and Protestant branches). Being an Orthodox Christian means following the earliest known set of Christian doctrines. Believers follow the Homoousian doctrine which declares that Jesus is both God and man. The Great Schism of 1054 brought on a separation of the Orthodox religion due to the difference of opinion on such things as the Holy Spirit, bread for the Eucharist, use of images, and the date of Easter. This separation created what today is the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox church. The Orthodox Church is one of the oldest religious institutions and attempts to follow the original Christian faith as established by Jesus. By the 4th century, the faith had spread throughout the Roman and Byzantine Empires, a fact that is reflected in the current list of countr